Free reading

Free reading

woman in library

Klimkin, Pixabay

However deeply you are immersed in your research, always do some reading that is not one of your required texts. A text outside your subject can act like an invigorating shower, its new themes and different forms freshening the mind. When I’m writing a novel, I often turn to poetry – not for its subject matter but for its economy – and find my own writing becomes crisper as a result. For students across all disciplines, reading a novel or a collection of poetry unassociated with your work is both a necessary reminder that there is life beyond your studies, and an opportunity for words or phrases to trigger new thoughts and ideas. Freewriting is well-documented as a writing aid, but if you really want to nurture your mental health and keep your writing in shape, I’d advocate free reading too.

Katie Grant
14 November 2019

Logical ligaments

Logical ligaments

graphic of human bodyThe words ‘therefore’ and ‘however’ are sometimes used loosely, as if to add an argumentative feel. But they are potent words with highly specific uses. ‘Therefore’ expresses a strictly logical consequence. There are no eyewitness accounts. We must therefore treat other sources with caution. ‘However’ signals strong contrast or contradiction. The inside temperature fell. The outside temperature rose, however. (Note that you can’t use these words to join two sentences at a comma, as you would with ‘and’ or ‘but’. They need a full stop or, if you like, a semi-colon.) If the underlying logic is not there, adding these words will expose the gap not paper it over. Are you really describing a consequence or only a connection? Are you revealing a contradiction or only a distinction? We sometimes think about writing like we look at the human body – paying attention to the organs, bones, muscles and the surface of the skin. The ligaments, the elastic tissues that connect our joints, are often ignored. Yet ligaments hold bodies together. And logical ligaments hold essays together.

James McConnachie
31 October 2019

Don’t stop the flow

Don’t stop the flow

Flowing streamWhen you’re writing the first draft of an assignment, it’s good to work in concentrated bursts without stopping. To maintain the flow, I make myself notes in square brackets as I write. I’m looking now at the draft of the introduction for my next book. There’s a statistic I need to look up later, so I’ve noted [CHECK]. For one paragraph, the information source is old so I need to double check elsewhere [CHECK OTHER SOURCE]. In a couple of places, I’m not sure of the date so I’ve made a rough guess and noted to verify it later. The final sentence should be really strong so later I’ll [IMPROVE] it. Once my draft is completed, I’ll go back and fix all the issues in one go. This method stops me from becoming distracted by details and allows me to concentrate on my main ideas.

Cath Senker
17 October 2019

Creating space to think

Creating space to think

no mobiles signSmartphones and social media are designed to keep you going back to them by offering little hits of the chemical dopamine — tiny rewards that entice you and then hold your attention. We know this; their inventors have admitted it. Smartphones could just as well have been designed to disrupt writing, because what writing requires is absorption: sustained attention without distraction. So give your brain a chance to think. If you can’t bring yourself to switch off your phone and Wifi connection, then at least mute alerts. That way, you go to your device when you want to, not every time it calls. Why not try working for an hour with your phone on airplane mode, and an hour as normal? Afterwards, compare your productivity over the two hours. You might be shocked by the difference.

James McConnachie
3 October 2019

Break up long sentences

Young woman readingMiniscule pinprick of black — there’s not a lot to a full stop, but to your reader’s brain it can be like oxygen. We write sentences in order to hand our reader a piece of information, a unit of meaning. When we write a sentence that contains not one point, but two or three, or even four, our poor reader never gets the chance to process that initial point before another barges into their mind — a sense of suffocation soon follows; so find the place in over-long sentences where your first point has been made and insert a full stop.

Let’s try that again:
When we write a sentence that contains not one point, but two or three, or even four, our poor reader never gets the chance to process that initial point before another barges into their mind. A sense of suffocation soon follows. So find the place in over-long sentences where your first point has been made and insert a full stop. It will let your reader breathe more easily.

Chris Simms
13 June 2019

Don’t waste – recycle

Don’t waste – recycle

recycling sign

Elias Schäfer from Pixabay

When I was writing my 20,000-word critical paper for my practice-based PhD, I had to cut an entire chapter. When my supervisor said, ‘You don’t need chapter 2’, I was devastated. All that work for nothing! But I realised I could recycle my unused words and was able to turn them into two journal articles.

I recommend to my students that they keep a folder for any material they are unable to incorporate in their assignment — interesting (but irrelevant) sources, single paragraphs or entire sections. The materials might be relevant for another piece of work, helpful for developing ideas for a dissertation or useful for revision.

Lucy English
30 May 2019

Keep a critical prompts notebook

Keep a critical prompts notebook

Thinking critically involves asking questions. Academic researchers who have been reading material from their field for years do this automatically. To help you adopt the same questioning mind as a student, it can be useful to keep a list of critical prompts — questions to ask every time you encounter a new text. When reading a paper, you might ask: ‘Was the method the best choice to test the hypothesis?’ or ‘Does the conclusion follow on logically from the research?’ Keep a notebook to record these questions and try to add to the list every time you read for an assignment. You might not use all the questions every time you analyse a text, but they will help to remind you of all the different ways you can evaluate what the author is saying.

Dr Anna Barker
16 May 2019

Get a new perspective

Get a new perspective

student reading in cafe

Image credit: elisandropootcarrillo from Pixabay

Sometimes when you’re immersed in a writing project, academic argument or tricky email, you get stuck. How can you view the situation from a new perspective and gain the insight to progress?

To see your work in a new light, try the following:
1. Take a break in which you do something completely absorbing, but completely different. You’ll return to the work refreshed.
2. Work somewhere different to see things from a new angle. Write in a café, a laundrette, the library — or just move your desk.
3. Switch to another project and then come back to the problematic one.
4. Leave a piece of work overnight or for a few days to ‘grow cold’ before you begin editing. It will help you to achieve objectivity and spot the necessary changes.

Heather Dyer
2 May 2019

‘Your academic writing isn’t academic enough.’

‘Your academic writing isn’t academic enough.’

Student on laptop

Jan Vašek from Pixabay

If you’ve ever got this kind of feedback for one of your essays, it can be a bit of a blow. You’ve tried hard to meet the expectations of your assessment criteria by including content you thought was necessary, but something about the way you’ve written the essay doesn’t quite fit the bill. What does ‘not academic enough’ mean?

The paragraph you have just read includes some language that is not appropriate for academic writing. The tone is informal, using expressions we might use in conversation with a friend. Notice the clichés (bit of a blow, fit the bill) and the contractions (‘you’ve’ instead of ‘you have’).

So how is academic writing different? In general, academic writing is more formal. One way you can achieve this is through the use of suitable verbs. Academic writers generally use powerful, single-word verb forms instead of phrasal verbs (verb + preposition). For example, instead of writing ‘bring about’ change, you could say ‘effect’ change’; instead of ‘wipe out’, you might use ‘eliminate’.

For more examples of the difference between appropriate and inappropriate academic language, this is an excellent resource:
‘Using Appropriate Words in an Academic Essay’ (NUS)

http://www.nus.edu.sg/celc/research/books/cwtuc/chapter03.pdf?fbclid=IwAR3pU0fhp_FbM_GrXXloNBub4OBz_q8BAv-2Vxm3gkIvyYKH6z3m7Uv_lHU

Anna Barker
4 April 2019

Lose that redundant paragraph

Lose that redundant paragraph

What’s the best thing to do with the first paragraph of your essay? Write it, then put it in the bin. Now this isn’t always true, but it often is. Many writers ‘write themselves into it’, like an engine warming up before it runs properly. They might write vague opening lines like this: ‘Experts disagree about how best to begin an essay, and it is easy to feel confused by conflicting rules.’ You’ll often find that it is better to start with your second paragraph, which might start like this: ‘A surprising writing tip is to put your first paragraph in the bin.’ Typically, paragraph 2 is where you start getting down to the important stuff — and that’s precisely where your essay should begin. The writer Hilary Mantel put it most memorably. When you write that first paragraph, she asked, ‘are you performing a haka, or just shuffling your feet?’ Most of us, I’m afraid, start with a stiff shuffle. The agile, exciting, showy war-dance of the haka only gets going in paragraph two.

James McConnachie
21 March 2019

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